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Woodcarving began as a necessity in America and developed into an art. Because of the lack of other materials, early settlers were forced to make tools and utensils out of wood. At first, these articles were whittled with a knife, but when pioneer craftsmen set up their primitive shops most of them were fashioned on a lathe—a machine which holds an object and rotates it while it is being shaped by a tool.
However, even after Massachusetts-born Thomas Blanchard designed a lathe which could turn irregular shapes—an innovation that, made possible mass production of gunstocks, shoe lasts, oblong and square wood ware—craftsmen who could use knife and chisel skillfully were still in demand. Some found ready employment in shops of cabinet-makers and chair-makers, while others carved decoys (捕兽的圈套). Still others specialized in creating shop signs, ship figureheads, or in decorating interior woodwork. A few even accepted commissions to make busts(半身像) of prominent citizens.
36. This passage most likely came from a longer work about early American( ).
37. The passage suggests that the early shops for making tools were( ).
38. It can be inferred from the passage that, before Thomas Blanchard’s invention, lathes( ).
39. Which of the following object was an important wood-working tool used by early American craftsmen?
40. According to the passage, when wooden articles began to be mass-produced, what did many individual wood-workers do?

问题1选项
A.arts and crafts
B.political leaders
C.logging industries
D.fashion design
问题2选项
A.not very sophisticated
B.known for doing very quick work
C.dependent on imported materials
D.frequented only by fashionable people
问题3选项
A.were not made of wood
B.could not produce square objects
C.were found only in cabin making shops
D.could be used to make most tools and utensils
问题4选项
A.A bust
B.A decoy
C.A figurehead
D.A chisel
问题5选项
A.They moved out of Massachusetts.
B.They found wood making specialized items.
C.They made demands on government leaders.
D.They took jobs on ships as sailors.
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