Directions: For this part, you are required to write a composition entitled “My View on Cooperation and Competition”. You should write at least 300 words and you should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:1. 合作与竞争的关系。2. 作为未来的博士生，在未来的学习和工作中如何处理好合作与竞争的关系。
When visiting the U.K. and looking to see what phones the locals use, odds are that every other one has Google Android device in hand. The data shows that Apple’s market share in the U.K. has fallen to 18.5 percent, which is down from 33 percent last year. That reduction has allowed Research in Motion to capture the no. 2 spot with 22.5 percent of sales. Other notable figures outside the top three include Nokia devices (6 percent) and Microsoft handsets with a scant 1.4 percent of sales.Will the market share mix continue with Android leading the pack? I imagine Android will continue to be the market leader, but Apple will leapfrog back over RIM thanks to the new iPhone 4S. There are surely buyers for both iPhones and BlackBerry devices, but in general, RIM still doesn’t offer near the experience, functionality or diversity of applications found on the latest iPhone. Perhaps that will change when RIM launches phones with the new BBX platform, but that’s looking like a 2012 event at this point.
We can begin our discussion of “population as global issue” with what most persons mean when they discuss “the population problem”: too many people on earth and a too rapid increase in the number added each year. The facts are not in dispute. It was quite right to employ the analogy that likened demographic growth to “a long, thin powder fuse that burns steadily and haltingly until it finally reaches the charge and explodes.”To understand the current situation, which is characterized by rapid increases in population, it is necessary to understand the history of population trends. Rapid growth is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Looking back at the 8,000 years of demographic history, we find that populations have been virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history. For most of our ancestors, life was hard, often nasty, and very short. There was high fertility in most places, but this was usually balanced by high mortality. For most of human history, it was seldom the case that one in ten persons would live past forty, while infancy and childhood were especially risky periods. Often, societies were in clear danger of extinction because death rates could exceed their birthrates. Thus, the population problem throughout most of history was how to prevent extinction of the human race.This pattern is important to notice. Not only does it put the current problems of demographic growth into a historical perspective, but it suggests that the cause of rapid increase in population in recent years is not a sudden enthusiasm for more children, but an improvement in the conditions that traditionally have caused high mortality.Demographic history can be divided into two major periods: a time of long, slow growth which extended from about 8,000 BC till approximately AD 16150. In the first period of some 9600 years, the population increased from some 8 million to 500 million in 16150. Between 16150 and the present, the population has increased from 500 million to more than 4 billion. And it is estimated that by the year 20500 there will be 6.2 billion people throughout the world. One way to appreciate this dramatic difference in such abstract numbers is to reduce the time frame to something that is more manageable. Between 8000BC and 16150, an average of only 50,000 persons was being added annually to the world’s population each year. At present, this number is added every six hours. The increase is about 80,000,000 persons annually.1. Which of the following demographic growth pattern is most suitable for the long thin powder fuse analogy?2. During the first period of demographic history, societies were often in danger of extinction because ______.3. Which statement is true about population increase?4. The author of the passage intends to ______.5. The word “demographic” in the first paragraph means ______.
Most of us are taught to pay attention to what is said—the words. Words do provide us with some information, but meanings are derived from so many other sources that it would hinder our effectiveness as a partner to a relationship to rely too heavily on words alone. Words are used to describe only a small part of the many ideas we associate with any given message. Sometimes we can gain insight into some of those associations if we listen for more than words. We don’t always say what we mean or mean what we say. Sometimes our words don’t mean anything except “I’m letting off some steam. I don’t really want you to pay close attention to what I’m saying. Just pay attention to what I’m feeling.” Mostly we mean several things at once. A person wanting to purchase a house says to the current owner, “This step has to be fixed before I’ll buy.” The owner says, “It’s been like that for years.” Actually, the step hasn’t been like that for years, but the unspoken message is: “I don’t want to fix it. We put up with it. Why can’t you?” The search for a more expansive view of meaning can be developed of examining a message in terms of who said it, when it occurred, the related conditions or situation, and how it was said.When a message occurs can also reveal associated meaning. Let us assume two couples do exactly the same amount of kissing and arguing. But one couple always kisses after an argument and the other couple always argues after a kiss. The ordering of the behaviors may mean a great deal more than the frequency of the behavior. A friend’s unusually docile behavior may only be understood by noting that it was preceded by situations that required an abnormal amount of assertiveness. Some responses may be directly linked to a developing pattern of responses and defy logic. For example, a person who says “No!” to a serials of charges like “You’re dumb,” “You’re lazy,” and “You’re dishonest,” may also say “No!” and try to justify his or her response if the next statement is “And you’re good looking.”We would do well to listen for how messages are presented. The words, “If sure has been nice to have you over,” can be said with emphasis and excitement or ritualistically. The phrase can be said once or repeated several times. And the meanings we associate with the phrase will change accordingly. Sometimes if we say something infrequently it assumes more importance; sometimes the more we say something the less importance it assumes.1. Effective communication is rendered possible between two conversing partners, if ______.2. “I’m letting off some steam” in paragraph one means ______.3. The house-owner’s example shows that he actually means ______.4. Some responses and behaviors may appear very illogical, but are justifiable if ______.5. The word “ritualistically” in the last paragraph equals something done ______.
For a long time, researchers have tried to nail down just what shapes us—or what, at least, shapes us most. And over the years, they’ve had a lot of exclamation moments. First it was our parents, particularly our mothers. Then it was our genes. Next it was our peers, who show up last but hold great sway. And all those ideas were good ones—but only as far as they went.Somewhere, there was a sort of temperamental dark matter exerting an invisible gravitational pull of its own. More and more, scientists are concluding that this unexplained force is our siblings.From the time we are born, our brothers and sisters are our collaborators and co-conspirators, our role models and cautionary tales. They are our scolds, protectors, goads, tormentors, playmates, counselors, sources of envy, objects of pride. They teach us how to resolve conflicts and how not to; how to conduct friendships and when to walk away from them. Sisters teach brothers about the mysteries of girls; brothers teach sisters about the puzzle of boys. Our spouses arrive comparatively late in our lives; our parents eventually leave us. Our siblings may be the only people we’ll ever know who truly qualify as partners for life. “Siblings,” says family sociologist Katherine Conger, “are with us for the whole journey.”Within the scientific community, siblings have not been wholly ignored, but research has been limited mostly to discussions of birth order. Older sibs were said to be strivers; younger ones rebels; middle kids the lost souls. The stereotypes were broad, if not entirely untrue，and there the discussion mostly ended.But all that’s changing. At research centers in the U.S., Canada, Europe and elsewhere, investigators are launching a wealth of new studies into the sibling dynamic, looking at ways brothers and sisters steer one another into—or away from—risky behavior how they form a protective buffer (减震器) against family upheaval; how they educate one another about the opposite sex; how all siblings compete for family recognition and come to terms—or blows—over such impossibly charged issues as parental favoritism.From that research，scientists are gaining intriguing insights into the people we become as adults. Does the manager who runs a harmonious office call on the peacemaking skills learned in the family playroom? Does the student struggling with a professor who plays favorites summon up the coping skills acquired from dealing with a sister who was Daddy’s girl? Do husbands and wives benefit from the inter—gender negotiations they waged when their most important partners were their sisters and brothers? All that is under investigation. “Siblings have just been off the radar screen until now,” says Conger. But today serious work is revealing exactly how our brothers and sisters influence us. 1. The beginning of the passage indicates that ______.2. In the third paragraph, the author tries to demonstrate that our siblings ______.3. In scientific community, previous research on siblings ______.4. Which of the following is NOT sibling dynamic?5. From the last paragraph, we can conclude that ______.
Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe which appears to be utterly devoid of humor, we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury, for unlike any other bodily process, laughter does not seem to serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divide world, laughter is a unifying force. Human beings oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps, but we all share the ability to laugh. And laughter, in turn, depends on that most complex and subtle of all human qualities: a sense of humor. Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of Charlie Chaplin’s early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we come from. As that great commentator on human affairs, Dr. Samuel Johnson, once remarked, ‘Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.’A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tingle to an earth quaking roar, but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop sided view of things.This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so often on the brink of war; political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such circumstances, cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about war in Gulliver’s Travels. The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they can’t agree which end to break an egg. We laugh because we meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian regimes.The sense of humor must be singled out as man’s most important quality because it is associated with laughter. And laughter, in turn, is associated with happiness. Courage, determination, initiative—these are qualities we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals of life, then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.1. The most important of all human qualities is ______.2. The author mentions about Charlie Chaplin’s early films because ______.3. One of the chief functions of irony and satire is ______.4. What do we learn from the sentence ‘it is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian regimes’?5. Who is Swift?
Directions: The passage contains ten errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of one error. In each case, only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage, try to detect the errors and write down your corrections on the answer sheet.
A translator must have an excellent, up-to-date knowledge of his source languages. He must fill facility in the handling of his target language, which will be his mother tongue or language of habitual (1), and a knowledge and understanding of the latest subject-matter in his field of specialization. This is, as it were, his professional (2). In addition to this, it is (3) that he should have an enquiring mind, wide interests, a good memory and the ability to (4) quickly the basic principles of new developments.He should be willing to work (5) his own, often at high speeds, but should be humble enough to (6) other people because his own (7) does not always prove adequate to the task in hand. He should be able to type fairly quickly and (8) and, if he is working mainly for publication, should have more than a nodding (9) with printing techniques and proof-reading.If he is working basically as an information translator, let us say, for an industrial firms, he should have the flexibility of mind to enable him to (10) rapidly from one source language to (11), as well as from one subject-matter to another, since this ability is frequently (12) of him in such work. Bearing in (13) the nature of the translator’s work, i.e. the processing of the written word, it is, strictly speaking, (14) that he should be able to speak the languages he is (15) with.If he does speak them, it is an (16) rather than a hindrance (障碍), but this skill is in many ways a luxury that he can do away with. It is, (17), desirable that he should have an (18) idea about the pronunciation of his source languages, even if this is restricted to knowing how proper names and place names are pronounced. The same (19) to an ability to write his source languages. If he can, well and good; if he cannot, it does not (20).